Textures in Ray-tracing

plain sphere
Plain sphere
checker color texture
Checker color texture
Mandelbrot texture
Mandelbrot color texture
Earth surface texture
Earth surface texture
Bump texture
Bump texture
Texture bitmap
Earth texture bitmap (large)
Elevation bitmap
Elevation bitmap
Elevation bitmap
Elevation-based colormap

Noise generator (sparse convolution)

Convolution radial function ƒ = (cos(r/π)+1)/2 (kernel radius is 1).
Constant number of samples in one square/cube cell 1x1/1x1x1 is generated.

Plain noise

noise 50/2spc
Cell: 50x50, samples: 2/cell = 2π/supp(ƒ)
noise 50/3spc
Cell: 50x50, samples: 3/cell
noise 50/6spc
Cell: 50x50, samples: 6/cell
noise 50/10spc
Cell: 50x50, samples: 10/cell
noise 20/6spc
Cell: 20x20, samples: 6/cell
noise 8.3/6spc
Cell: 8.3x8.3, samples: 6/cell
noise 3.3/6spc
Cell: 3.3x3.3, samples: 6/cell


Sum of a sequence of noise values with increasing frequency and decreasing amplitude.


Turbulence 2/0.5
Cell: 50x50, 2 comp, coeff: 0.5
Turbulence 4/0.5
Cell: 50x50, 4 comp, coeff: 0.5
Turbulence 2/0.5
Cell: 42.5x42.5, 6 comp, coeff: 0.7
Turbulence 2/0.5
Cell: 42.5x42.5, 7 comp, coeff: 0.7/0.8

Noise-based textures

Color 2D
Color 2D texture, spherical mapping
Bump 2D
2D bump-map, spherical mapping
Anisotropic bump 2D
Anisotropic bump-map, spherical mapping
Color+bump 2D
Color + bump map, spherical mapping
3D cells cube
3D cell texture (cubic)
3D cells hexagon
3D cell texture (hexagonal)

Water surface simulation

Empirical modelling using continuous noise functions to modulate surface normals. Caustics were computed by light-tracing preprocessing steps. One rectangular uniform light source (on vertical wall behind the pool) was sampled by 11.8 million of light-rays per image. Light map on the pool bottom had 512x512px resolution.


Light-map, medium waves
Light-map, strong waves
Pool, light waves
Pool, medium waves
Pool, strong waves

Flame simulation

Empirical 2D flame simulation is based on deforming a base flame image by a suitable continuous noise function. Animation is introduced using 3D noise, drifting slowly along a sloped direction.


Flame base
Base image
Flame, light turbulence
Flame, medium turbulence
Flame, strong turbulence

Flame animation, snapshots from one animation sequence

Copyright (C) 1996-2017 J.Pelikán, last change: 2017-03-27 03:37:22 +0200 (Mon, 27 Mar 2017)